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Read each of these two articles and articulate 3-4 explicit and implicit claims for each of them:
“Do the problems of language always limit the production of knowledge?”
I agree with language always limit the production of knowledge. Limit means there are some restrictions of understanding the meanings, it is not possible to only use language to understand all the things and expand some certain knowledge. Some of the problems could be, for example, different languages can cause ambiguity in the definition of objects and things. Sometimes there are words in some language to describe something, while there are no words to describe that thing in some other languages. Saying Chinese and English, the word “available” is widely used in English, however, when I was learning about this word, I couldn’t find a Chinese word that matches the meaning. Instead, I have to use a sentence to explain it, which sometimes may cause ambiguity. Another example is language in different fields. Using a scientific language makes a huge difference in using an artistic language. We found out that using these two languages to describe exactly the same thing can give two different of perspective. We think more about science when using scientific language, while thinking more about feelings, shapes, and other things when using artistic language. This proves language limits the way that we think. That’s how language can always limit the production of knowledge.
The counter arguments could be those problems can be used in some positive ways. Still using Chinese and English as an example, some of the words cannot be translated directly from one to another, we can take the advantage of it to know about the other culture and the other way of describing something. That’s how the people from all over the world can still communicate, though there are a lot of languages existing in the world. We are trying to understand each other, for the better interpretation of the language. To add on, language is not the only way to communicate and get knowledge. Even if there are some limitations, it would not affect the communication all around the world.
In conclusion, the limitations of languages to obtain knowledge can be both negative and positive. There are some clear problems of the languages, which can lead to ambiguity and narrow thinking. However, the problems can be seen as a benefit for expanding the area of knowledge if we take it in another way, so that people can understand each other better.
The sciences are all about using reason to understand the world, there is no place for emotion in science.
As an art student, I have tried to use different ways to produce artworks, however, all the artworks have one thing in common: emotion. This lead to an argument: emotion is the most important thing in art. When creating a piece of artwork, the thing that first comes to my mind is emotion. Art is a form to express my own emotion, if artists don’t have emotion, then there would not be artwork, at least fine artwork. The reason why some artists are famous and even their works have already been kept for over a hundred years, is because we can tell the emotion behind those works, that might echo with the audiences’ own experience. Thus, we can say that for art, emotion is always put on the first place.
The counter-argument would be art not only requires emotion input but also needs techniques which can paint the emotion out correctly. If the artist only has emotion, but he doesn’t know any techniques about art, it is impossible for him to create a good artwork. By saying that, techniques in art is also very important, it can be prior than emotion. There is someone who is really good at painting, that his painting skills cannot be replaced by anyone. He can absolutely paint something without emotion, but with good techniques. People can still give compliments on it because of his extraordinary skills and people can still feel something about the art.
To balance out, the statement is not true. Emotion is not the only most important thing in art, techniques are one of the most important things in art, in order to express the emotion. Art is the way to express emotion with some certain techniques. Only with art skills, we are able to create art with emotion.
a) Outline the role of 1 WOK in 1 AOK in the production of knowledge.
Perception is the way of knowing for arts, which is one of the areas of knowing. Perception means the ability to the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses. People interpret artworks with their five senses, we can see the artwork, and then we know about it. We can feel the mood and tone of the artwork from our senses, which cannot be sensed by the other ways of knowing.
c) Knowing that WOKs are double-edged swords: they are sources of knowledge and are also fallible, how do any disciplines (in the AOK you chose above) guard against the weaknesses of the WOK you chose?
Perception can be a double-sided because it is each person’s own feelings, which can not be judged by a standard. For example, when analysing a piece of artwork, what I do is to describe what I see and what the feeling of artwork give me. Sometimes it is hard to have empathy with that artwork because my personal experience is different from the artist’s experience. So that would mislead me to a wrong understanding of the artwork, like the usage of the colours might be totally different from my point of view. This has been a problem for years since I have started looking into different artworks. I have figured out that if I look deeper into the artists’ background and the situation when they were creating their artwork, it seems to be more likely to get a right message from the artworks.
Provide one or two examples and explanations of how we move from believing something to knowing something?
Or, put in another way:
What are some ways that you can become more certain of something?
From a young age, most of us are educated about a lot of common knowledge from our parents, teachers or other people. Common knowledge is accepted by people, which we won’t purposely to prove it. By the description from the others, we tend to make a positive thought on it so that it is very easy to believe in something. Knowing something means I have been through that thing to get an experience as well as I can prove it is actually real. Based on believing in something, knowing is a further step to make us more certain of something.
For example, I have known that when we mix baking soda with vinegar, it will produce carbon dioxide. I have only heard of it from my science teacher when I was in grade 6, but I have a theory that the reaction is true. That is when I was believing it. Only until this year, we did an experiment on that reaction. I actually saw bubbles (carbon dioxide) coming out from the mixture of baking soda and vinegar, that proves the reaction is true, and I have experienced it. Now I am transferred from believing it to knowing it.
Another example is from my experience as well in art. Everyone has been told that if you mix blue and red together, you will get purple. Theoretically, we believe that purple is made with red and blue. However, after I was mixing the red and blue together, I found that different ratios of red and blue can create different purple with gradients. Getting to know about this is a rediscovery of my past believing. I understand how much red and blue that I need to produce purple with my own experience.