We think that there is a positve but weak correlations between the overall Sanitation % and the GDP per capita. In 1990, there is a big clump of countries, mostly more developed countries are already up high in the chart except for a few countries that mostly located in Africa are at the bottom. Overall, as the the income per person increases, the more people are able to have access to improved sanitation. The correlation with some reference is weak because most of the countries are already on the top of the chart, meaning that the countries are rich enough to provide their citizens better infrastructures and education, they also developed advanced technology and they have been ahead of times. The overall sanitation really relies on the GDP per capita because as the income per person increases, the country becomes wealthier and as a result, the countries are able to buy advanced supplies for example medicine, clean water access and infrastructures. I believe that it takes a long period of time to improve the standard of lives, 16 years are not enough for developing countries like Niger or Liberia, countries in Africa to develop and increase each person’s income, they will be needing to overcome obstacles like the corruption of government, the lack of education etc. They will also be relying on the people from other countries to give a hand. I have noticed an anomaly in the data: One of the country, Gabon which located in Africa started off with pretty much high income per person (10600) with 38% of sanitation has a negative correlation and I believe it was because the government didn’t bring up the sanitation issue causing it to worsen though the income per person increased.
Are increasing rates urbanization a good thing?
Increasing rates of urbanization are double-sided. It could be a good or bad thing. Its just a matter of how people precieve things in general. Socially, it could benifit the people who are from the rural places as it provides higher incomes for workers than those would earn on a farm and it also yields further opportunities to climb the income ladder. For example a lot of cases in China, in order to earn money for their children’s education fee or simply usual expenses, parents that might be farmers would go to cities, like guangzhou or Beijing and work there as factories workers and they only go back to their homes once or twice a year. In addition to creating better-paid jobs, cities also allow better and cheaper access to services. For example, the average price of water is 182 West African CFA francs (£0.24) per cubic metre for piped water from a system, CFAF 534 from a public fountain and CFAF 926 from a vendor in rural areas. Poor access to essential foundation has an unbalanced impact on rural ladies as they perform a large portion of the domestic chores and always walk for a long distances to get water. However, since many people moved to cities, it results in scarcity of houses which results in development of slums and since there are many people living in those small areas, it results in these people contracting many diseases. It could cause a lot of diseases as more people from different places are cramped in a dense area. Once a person carries some kind of dieases entered a crowded city, soon most people would get affected. Taking Hong Kong as an example, in 2003, SARS erupted and it was responsible for 299 deaths. Tracking SARS back to its source, bats who carries SARS came contact with the Chinese as they consumes bats and some of them arrived in Hong Kong. The primary way that SARS appears to spread is by close person-to-person contact. In crowded area like the MTR where people are closely packed and once someone sneezes or coughs, everyone would have contact to the germs. The one with weak immune system got affected. As I have mentioned above, more and more people move from rural to urban area which leads the shift of working population from agriculture to industries. And because of that, there will be a fall in agriculture produce which results in fall in food production and that in turn results in inflation as there is more demand and less supply of food products. If the government control the people well, meaning that the government is able to settle in all the places instead of a desnse area by improving the standards of live and infranstructures in urban area, I believe that urbanization is a good thing in social aspect.
When we were asked what geography is at the beginning of the lesson, all I could come up with was that it was a study of the map, patterns and human nature. It was all about how things are placed in the continent. But as we discussed with the others throughout the class, I started to get a hand of it and by the end of class, I think I have mostly understood the concept of geography. Geography have covered a lot of different subjects, for example math when calculating the rate of population growth in a certain country, science when investigating why earthquake occurs, history of a continent and cultural etc. The SEEP (social, environmental, economical, political) concept has played a huge role in geography. It helps us to understand the pros and cons of how geography could lead to different areas. Geography can be divided into two parts, the social sciences (human geography) and the natural sciences (physical geography). Human geography is the study of how human activity impact or is affected by the earth’s surface. Human geography included the understanding of people, cultures, communities, political, history and economies. Examples would be the distribution of various food and race, how clothing and customs is affected due to climax change, how people govern the world by setting up borders and continents, settlement patterns in a period of time and the GDP of countries. Physical geography covered the understanding of the dynamics of physical landscapes and the environment. Physical geography focus more on “non-living” things like the shells of the earth, rivers, mountains, atmosphere, climate change and their origins in depth.
Geography is important because…
it allows us to understand how and why the world is changing, globally and locally
urges us to face the pressures from our natural environments
inform us the places and communities in which we live and work in and to appreciate life and natural resources
1. Which part of SEEP involves the most in geography?
2. What would happen or what problem would they be facing if children from the next generation don’t study geography?