Research Question: How does the volcano eruption affect the economics of the country?
- Hypothesis: Volcanic eruptions affect the economy through the destruction inflicted upon the landscape during an eruption: lahars and pyroclastic flow destroying bridges and homes, ash ruining crops and water, lava flows overrunning communities. It causes thousands of death and destruction of infrastructures. It requires a lot of effort and money to reconstruct the community.
- Method(s)/tools of data collection: The economic loss of the country can be measured by the number of people who died, the number of infrastructures that require reconstruction, the GPA of the country etc.
- Techniques for analyzing your data: Making predicts of the loss by comparing similar volcano eruption that happened in the past.
- Research Question: How do the substances emit from volcano causes effect on human?
- Hypothesis: The explosion and the gas emitted from the volcano might cause the death of human and long-term diseases such as lung cancer.
- Method(s)/tools of data collection: Estimate the number of people living near the volcano and rank the injured people based on their severity.
- Techniques for analyzing your data: Calculate the percentage of people who were injured and died out of the total number of people who live nearby the volcano.
Compare the reliability/certainty of the knowledge your experts will acquire.
- The certainty and reliability of the knowledge the human scientists acquire are relatively low compared to the knowledge natural scientists aquire. The knowledge human scientists acquire is usually from observing and analysing similar situations that happened in the past and formulate with some theory to predict future. Predictions made may not always be reliable and certain as different disasters are taken place in different time and place, environmental factors such as the advancement of technology and communication systems might influence the predictions. Our emotions and reason also cause some limitation in the production of knowledge from this AOK. Every single person has different emotions and even thinks in a different manner. Different experts might have different opinions towards the economic loss of the country. On the other hand, the knowledge from the natural science is more reliable and certain, although the knowledge in natural science is not definite as they are only theories where it has not been falsified, there has been evidence that supports the knowledge.
- Identify the factors that contribute to (or take away from) reliability/certainty.
- Natural Science:
- The experiment can be done as many times as you want to generate more reliable and certain data.
- They are just theories that have not been falsified, they are not defined
- Human Science:
- Not all situations follow the same pattern as the ones from the past
- different perspectives have different predictions towards the same situation
ways that Human Scientists can increase the reliability of their claims:
- After collecting quanitative data from different situations, models and formulas are made which helps in predictions. Different perspectives should be considered when coming up with claims.
- What can you say ‘in general’ about HS as an AOK.
Human science is the study of human behaviours as a group or individuals. There are a lot of limitation as to the current methodology for this area of study reducing its reliability and certainty. Human scientists may be faced with bias on the part of the researcher as well as the object of research. Anthropologists may be unable to access the way people of different knowledge communities know due to linguistic difficulties or due to their own biased cultural memories. A sociologist may face ethical dilemmas when conducting experiments.