TOK: Natural Science VS Human Science-Dare to Compare


How did the volcanic eruption affect settlement patterns?

After the eruption the amount of settlement near the volcano decreased in the following years.

Comparing the population densities at various distances from the volcano before and after the eruption

Maps and statistics to estimate the population sizes at given distances

Concentric circles, to determine population density at various distances.

Compare effect of distance from volcano on population density before and after the eruption utilising a scatter graph.


What makes volcanic ash dangerous to humans?

Identify what volcanic ash is made of

Identify what human lungs are made of

Controlled experiment = leave some volcanic ash concentration? with human lung tissue

Investigate before and after condition of human lung tissue.  

The HS investigation seems to be much less reliable. This is because there are many other factors that are going to affect settlement patterns rather than just the volcanic eruption. By comparing the settlement patterns before the eruption and years after there are going to be many other factors that affected settlement. For example, innovations in transportation technology would causes settlement to be more sparse. Increasing world populations causes settlements to be more dense. However, for the NS investigation there isn’t much that affects the reliability or credibility because many trials can be conducted in a controlled environment. stopping other factors form effecting the results. Chemical theories can be applied to make sure results are accurate and reliable. HS could potentially increase reliability but studying the effect of volcanoes across many different explosions in different places and times. This would allow the conclusions to be supported by many different eruptions. Therefore, anomalous factors affecting settlement would have much less of an effect on the trend in settlement.





Correspondence and Coherence

Within the first section within their essay the student should look at there is correspondence within math. The student argues that mathematically equations and concepts are supported. They give the example of a fish population study which they created. They explain that it is fully supported by math. The student should compare this with correspondence theory. Meaning that within the AOK of math the concepts are equal and true. However, once applied to the real world it fails correspondence theory where the concepts fail to be true.

When discussing how with more and more trials I hypothesis can be shown to be progressively more reliable the student should discuss how the falls within correspondence theory.

In the conclusion the student should also discuss how the knowledge within some AOKs correspond theory is more applicable. For example, it is impossible to falsify or test what is “ethically” right or wrong while many areas math can be tested in the real world.


Our question: Can there be certainty in mathematics?


What is the difference between theorem and conjecture?

Conjecture is only a opinion or idea. However, a conjecture is not proven. It is created at a time when not all knowledge is produced. However, a theorem is proven. It is a truth that is accurate under any circumstance. A theorem is a proven conjecture that will always be true.