- What is intuition?
To me, Intuition is kind of like unconscious processing. It’s when we look at a problem or a situation and make an immediate judgement without thinking through our thoughts. I think a good question that supports my thinking was the “Linda” question that we watched in the video. I wouldn’t consider picking the wrong answer as a “gut” feeling, but more as unconscious processing because if we actually took time to think about the question, we would know our answer was wrong.
- What is System 1 and System 2 thinking?
System 1 thinking automatic, fast and effortless. It doesn’t require a lot of time to process. However, system 2 thinking is controlled, effortful and takes a lot longer. An example of system 1 thinking could be just looking at people’s faces and making an immediate judgement, while an example of system 2 thinking could be solving a math problem.
- How could you incorporate System 2 thinking into TOK?
Sometimes, when we look at real life situations or knowledge questions, we have an immediate response or answer on whether we agree with the question/ already have made a stance with the question. However, thinking about the question, and discussing different viewpoints can help us realise that a different opinion or answer may be something that we agree with more if we took the time to think about it.
- In your own words, explain the difference between deductive and inductive logic.
Inductive logic is based off general rules that are created from observing something a limited number of times.
Deductive logic is taking a general rule and applying it to a statement to coming to a conclusion. In more formal language this means moving from a two or more premises to a conclusion .
- What are the problems with each of these kinds of logic and what we can do to overcome some of these problems?
Some of the problems with Inductive logic is that there is no way to prove it true. Typically, Inductive logic comes from our own observations, but this may be limited. What we observe may always be the same, but it might be different somewhere else which can falsify our logic. Inductive logic also assumes that the world is a predictable place, but things can change at any moment and therefore our inductive logic may not be true.
And if you have time ….
Rabindranath Tagore said that ‘A mind all logic is like a knife all blade – it cuts the hand that uses it’ … what do you think he meant by this?
Maybe he’s trying to say thinking too logically isn’t always the best. Sometimes we need to use emotion or reason in making decisions, and and this may not always be easy to decide logically.
What are the characteristics that you feel best describe language? Why?
I think communication is the most important characteristic of language. The main purpose of languages are to help communicate with others, so being able to express ideas or communicate thoughts is very important. I also think another important characteristic that describes language well is the ability for others to learn it. As humans, we have created language on our own but we aren’t born completely fluent in any language. As we grow up we develop the ability to express ourselves more articulately, and with that our ability to speak a certain language will grow. Finally, I think another important characteristic of language is that some words within it have abstract concepts. Some of the words in any language are hard to define and don’t have a definite meaning. Some words have different meaning to different people.
What might be some of the weaknesses of language?
As I mentioned, one possible weakness is the fact that language includes abstract words that can have different meanings to different people. If the whole purpose of language is for communication, then the same word having a different meaning would be somewhat ineffective. Another weakness is that not everyone is born fluent in a language, and there are so many currently in our world that people have difficulty communicating with one another if they don’t speak the same language. We rely so heavily on language for communication that if someone can’t speak the same language as us, it’s nearly impossible to express meaning or have a conversation with them.
Do you think that language changes the way you think and therefore perceive the world? Why and what are the implications of this idea?
I think that language definitely changes the way you think and perceive the world. From looking at the examples mentioned in class, we learned that language helps us to think. If we don’t have a word for something, it’s because it’s not necessary or we don’t think about it – it’s not important to us. Having a word establishes that this concept/object is important and therefore we should know what it is.
Different communities lack certain words because they just don’t need it.
Do you agree more strongly with perceptual realism or perceptual relativism?
Honestly, I agree with both, and I think that both are valid and important perspectives to consider. Both prove that we do not see the world objectively. In fact, I think that perceptual realism can be considered part of perceptual relativism, as it can serve as an explanation for why we will never be able to see the world objectively. The explanation being that our senses can mislead us, and since we really only know the world through our senses, we will always see the world through a “filter” that is not always reliable.
That being said, I think I would have to agree with perceptual realism more. I think that in general, our senses are reliable and helpful to us, even when they “mislead” us. Through watching the video and discussing it in class, there were many examples brought up of our senses “misleading” us. One such example was two brown coloured squares on a cube, where one side was under a shadow.
In the left image, our senses tell us that the shadowed square is a lighter shade than the unshadowed square, but of course, they are actually the same shade. Personally, I don’t think of this as being “mislead” by my brain, as actually my brain has taken into consideration that the shadowed square is under a shadow, and this made it adjust the shade. I think this is actually quite helpful because in real life, shadowed colours appear darker than they would under a bright light, so my brain doing this for me is actually quite helpful.