# Math Scope

Quite often, ethical considerations can limit the scope of inquiry into certain areas, such as research into stem cells. The use of stem cells is …. The specificity of math is why it is a language that can be understood by people from opposite sides of the world (as long as each has the necessary skills). In this case, the explicit

I agree with Eduardo Saenz de Cabezon’s intention and reasoning when saying that “math dominates intuition”, however, a limitation to this claim would be that both intuition and maths can both be treated as a means of logical thinking. Hence, both ways of knowing may provide its own unique scope of knowledge

# TOK: Models

In this tok session we discussed about models, what they are, if they are useful and .

“All models are wrong, but some are useful”

This statement discusses the stance that models cannot accurately represent concepts they are conveying. From an extract taken from George box: “Now it would be very remarkable if any system existing in the real world could be exactly represented by any simple model. However, cunningly chosen parsimonious models often do provide remarkably useful approximations. For example, the law PV = RT relating pressure P, volume V and temperature T of an “ideal” gas via a constant R is not exactly true for any real gas, but it frequently provides a useful approximation and furthermore its structure is informative since it springs from a physical view of the behaviour of gas molecules.” This quote highlights the limitation of a very important physics model. Scientists relate factor such as pressure volume and temperature to this constant which they call R. The application of this formula is even flawed as it only can be applied to ideal gases which are theoretical. This model has its weaknesses but all models alike will have their own weaknesses, so breaking down this quote its not about whether the model is right or wrong but rather whether the model can be useful in our life.

# Extended Essay Sessions Reflection

So far we have had 2 extended essay sessions, in which we were briefed about the extended essay process and the expectations that are within it. We have discussed about plagiarism, deadline expectation and timelines and potential resources that we can use to get an idea about EE topic.

I have been considering doing my extended essay on physics. During these sessions I have looked at physics  extended essays to give my an idea about  topics and research questions. I want to write my extended essay in physics because it is a subject that I am passionate about. I have considered looking at topics related to magnetism because it seems like a very interesting topic to do research into.

# Art and Truth

1. Summarize what the main point(s) of the two essays into one short paragraph each.

One of the key things about the first essay is that they talk about how art is as equally true as science and that art has truth to it. The purpose of literature is to speak and convey the truth, these truths are an essential and
definitive element of the merit of a creative work. Humanity has always depended upon the power of storytelling and the written word to make sure that painful yet important truths and experiences are not forgotten. Though literature may be seen as the most powerful art form for conveying truth, we should not dismiss other forms of art either. Other mediums of art can describe the world in a more authentic way than words can.

The other essay talks about how truth is not necessary in art and the value of arts is beyond the truth that lies within it, even though facts and messages can be conveyed from art

# What is Art?

• There is no real purpose for the arts.
• There is no purpose for the arts because there is too much subjectivity in the arts, too much opinion. Supporting this claim, art as a field doesn’t have a unified purpose, as the purpose of each art piece is determined by the author, and again interpreted by audience, keeping in mind the intended purpose may not be the same one as the one perceived by the audience. This is in contrast to the sciences, where most people would agree that sciences in general seek to find facts on how things work. However I would argue that even a subjective purpose is real, as though it can different for each art piece, and different for each artist, the purpose is still there. As such it is not that there is no real purpose in the arts, but rather that the arts can serve a myriad of purposes.

# Competing hypothses in science

Science is objective and descriptive, while the arts are creative and interpretive. Evaluate this claim.

Although, There are many cases where science is objective through theories and labs, where conclusions made don’t have much room for interpretation. But Science isn’t always objective. There are many cases where being creative and interpretive helped solved many issues and questions in science.    There are many cases , for example Kekulé had a dream that he interpreted that led to the structure of benzene rings to be discovered. Also for a hypothesis there is a lot of interpretation and creativity that is used to imagine the possible outcome of the experiment. In contrast art is almost always subjective and up for interpretation, this is because most of art require emotion and opinion. There aren’t any pure fact concepts and art is always going to be influence by how someone feels about the art piece.

# Problems with observation and confirmation bias

Science is objective and descriptive, while the arts are creative and interpretive. Evaluate this claim.

I disagree with this statement because there are certain aspects in both of these areas that are interpretive and objective. For example in science, scientists can have their own biases and views on controversial scientific concept. An example being the big bang even though there was some evidence for it, people did not accept the theories as it went against what the society believed at the time. Even professional scientists went against the theory because it goes against the beliefs of scientists, which made many scientists look for answers to disprove the theory.

# Science vs Pseudoscience

The main difference between science and pseudo science is the prefix “pseudo”. Pseudo meaning fake, which shows that what whatever . Pseudo science normally is not backed up with much evidence and is based on a lot of assumptions to fulfil . Science is normally based off conclusions created from a method and a testable hypothesis.

# Intro to NS

What distinguishes Natural Science from other AOKs?

Natural science is very different from the other AOK. Comparing it to mathematics. Although natural sciences can be very different to experimental science like physics and chemistry which require a method. Natural sciences are more concerned with the natural world, which means they don’t necessarily require a specific method to follow. Another difference that natural sciences have over other ways of knowing is that their variables are a lot easier to control over other sciences.