Memory and Imagination

  1. Create a simple ‘cheat-sheet’ for both imagination and memory which captures:

Role of the WOK in the pursuit of knowledge

Problems/Issues with the WOK

  • Link between the WOK and other WOKs

This can easily be a screenshot, diagram, dialogue, point-form.


-helps combine multiple concepts to form a new/deeper understanding of a subject topic

-based off of previous experiences

-limited to our experiences


-concerned with recollection of concepts and knowledge

-apply already existing knowledge to situations

-easily altered by other ways of knowing

  1. Despite the imperfections of imagination and memory as ways of knowing, the Areas of Knowledge have developed in such as way as to overcome them. Discuss this claim with reference to at least two AOKs.

Even though imagination and memory have their flaws, the areas of knowledge such as the arts and natural science have been designed to overcome these imperfections. Even though memory and imagination have their flaws the arts uses both the advantage and disadvantage of those ways of knowing to create a product. By using memory and imagination artists come up with creative ideas.

Mathematics has been developed to overcome imagination and memory and even use them to come up with new theories. As mathematics is not likely to change based off of bias and emotion.

Faith and Intuition

I believe faith is something that you must have a strong belief in to the point that you are willing to make sacrifices for that belief. Intuition is a more natural feeling and response, to a situation or decision. Faith is more long term compared to intuition, faith is something that should develop over time or be developed from many factors over a period of time. Intuition is more short term as it could be a quick/instant decision made in the moment based on a gut feeling. Faith and intuition should be ways of knowing, for example in class we discussed about how the world would be completely different if we never had faith and intuition and only made decision based on calculated and reasoned logic.


“The vagueness and ambiguity of language always limits the production of knowledge”.

The type of language or word choice we use can make a massive impact on the effect we have on our audience. This in turn can hinder the production of knowledge. An example of this would be in the sciences, for example in physics that specific terminology required can lead to confusion and hinder the production of knowledge  when using vague language. For example, the formulas relating to the laws of motion have very specific variables that require specific terms such as acceleration, velocity and time. Without being specific in our explanations there is a high probability that multiple different interpretations are made and false assumptions are made. Which is not always what you want in sciences that rely on math because most of the time you will want one specific answer.


Pure logic is only concerned with the structure of arguments. The validity of an argument is independent of the truth or falsity of its premises. 

Pure logic is only concerned with the structure of the argument whether it is true or not. In maths there can be very logical arguments made, where the premise can be false. For example the premise we looked at in class was “all triangles add up to 180˚”. We based this reasoning on knowledge that we had and were taught. By saying all triangles add up to 180 we deduced the unknown angle by subtracting the known angles from 180˚. Although this was a valid argument to find the unknown angle, the premise we used about all triangles adding up to 180˚ was false. By euclidian geometry and concepts beyond our current knowledge and understanding it is possible that our premise if false but our argument was valid.



Ethical problems are created because people get too attached to their point of view. Without emotion the world would be a more moral place

Problems are created when people get too attached to a single point of view that they completely ignore all other opinions. The way we get emotionally attached to our views can create selection bias.

The way we view morals right now is based on emotion, the come to the conclusion of unethical actions if they cause harm and negative emotions. Without emotion the way we perceive morals and ethics would be completely different because they would be based off of rational and logical decisions. For example with eating dogs, with our emotion we may think that it is immoral to eat dogs because we have an emotional attachment to them but without emotion eating dogs would be logically correct as it could provide sustenance.

If we completely could ignore emotion then the world could become a more moral place because morals would be judged on logic. With the dog example the world would have become a more moral place because what is morally right would change based on logic, even if it is different to what we might think is morally correct right now.

Sense Perception

 Even though there are problems with our perceptual systems, this doesn’t mean that knowledge gained from our senses is completely unreliable.

Our senses were made to help us experience our surrounds, but there are many problems with our senses and the ways we perceive certain things. Our senses are very limited, for example we can’t see things very far away, we can’t hear certain frequencies, etc. Even though there are many problems, we can trust our senses to give reliable or close to reliable information in certain circumstances. For example when common sense is involved, if I were to touch a hot stove I would feel that it is hot and immediately retract my hand and not touch it again. Almost all the knowledge that we have today was gained from our senses, such as gravity. If we don’t trust our senses to at least some extent or in some situations then the majority of the common knowledge that we have today would not be reliable.

Intro to WOK

b)  Outline the role of 1 WOK in 1 AOK in the production of knowledge.


Reason has a very important role in mathematics to be curious and questioning to help learn new mathematic concepts. To solve a complex problem, normally you have to use a lot of logical steps and reasoning to arrive at a conclusion. Reason in math can also help us identify complex patterns that can develop into formulas. For example with sequences to identify that the shape is getting increasingly larger by N+1.

c)  Knowing that WOKs are double-edged swords: they are sources of knowledge and are also fallible, how do any disciplines in the AOK you chose above guard against the weaknesses of the WOK you chose?

Mathematical equations have a very specific procedure to solve and get a certain answer. Reasoning is very susceptible to bias and opinion but in math it is very hard to be impacted by opinion or bias as there is normally a set answer and a few set ways to get to that answer. Although, bias can come into effect in the case of statistics. For example choosing certain statistics to prove your point or selecting your data in a certain way.


An activity that I particularly enjoyed during the IB retreat was the alumni session. The alumni session was really enjoyable because we were given freedom to ask any questions related to IB or the diploma program. So I could tune my questions to apply to my specific position in the DP. For example asking questions about TOK, EE and my higher level classes. I was able to learn their methods for going through the DP and tips for succeeding in certain areas. They gave a lot of suggestions on what to do and what they wish they had done during their time in the DP.

Another activity I really enjoyed was the presentation on the extended essay that we will have to complete next year. The EE was an area that I was worried about because I didn’t know what it would entail but being able to know more and to see exactly what kind of skills I would need to complete the EE made me feel a lot better.

An activity that I found particularly challenging was the poverty simulation. Where we were thrown into a situation of poverty and had to quickly make paper bags in 3, 10 minute sessions to make money. This task was particularly challenging because it required you to act very quickly under pressure and forget your reasoning and surroundings. Although this activity was challenging I believe it was a very positive and enlightening experience as I was able to gain more insight into what people in poverty experience and how they think. It also taught me about the true needs of people in poverty and how I could make in impact in my life.

Overall, I am glad that we were able to go on the retreat. It provided a variety of activities that were enjoyable but also provided me with a challenge or required for me to come out of my comfort zone. It gave me a better idea of what to expect in the next couple of years. Finally, being able to spend time with my friends and peers made this retreat all the more enjoyable.

Knowledge and Explaining

With reference to the class activity today about knowing and explaining, in what ways might it be reasonable to suggest that people who disagree can both be right?

In certain controversial topics and topics that can’t be strictly determined by fact, it is possible that both sides can be correct even if they disagree. Just because you disagree doesn’t mean you are wrong. Disagreeing is based on opinion and being right or wrong is based on fact or opinion. If I disagree with someone that blue is the best colour it doesn’t mean that one of us is wrong or right because we can’t judge opinion. Of course there are going to be cases where things are going to be objectively right or wrong such as 1+1=2. There are also many cases where there will be multiple correct answers where the correct answer can change depending on the circumstances.

Both sides can also be right when considering sciences. If someone was asked if science was all facts, there are scientific hypotheses and scientific facts, they both can be right but depending on what they refer to. If we distinguish certain aspects of a broader topic then would be possible for multiple interpretations. Going back to the example of science, the hypothesis may not be complete fact but scientific concepts are.