Personal Knowledge and Shared Knowledge

Recently in TOK we have been examining the concepts of personal and shared knowledge. Personal knowledge is the knowledge that an individual has, whether from their experiences, or second-hand. Some personal knowledge can be incommunicable and private to the individual. Shared knowledge on the other hand is the knowledge that the collective has, meaning all the knowledge that all the individuals have shared.

A question to examine from the perspectives of personal and shared knowledge: Have you ever done a science experiment and got a result that differed from the textbook? If so, which did you trust – your own result, or the textbook? Why?

This has actually happened to me a few times in science class (something that I attribute to the fact that I am not very scientifically skilled or coordinated in the needed areas). In all cases I have trusted the results in my textbook or on the articles read on science websites due to the fact that I have more faith in their scientific academic knowledge and the knowledge they are sharing than my own personal knowledge. These textbooks have the responsibility to show the most correct aspects of the scientific community’s shared knowledge and since I understand my own personal academic scientific knowledge is not very high. To me, this is an example of where personal and shared knowledge work together to produce the best outcome.

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Here is a visual showing the areas of knowledge.

In terms of my own personal knowledge, at this point I can give a preliminary rating to each area of my personal knowledge:

Academic knowledge:
I believe this is moderate for me because personally believe I have a huge deal more to learn and understand in all AOKs and aspects of life.

Informal knowledge:
Again I would say this is moderate for the same reasons as above. Most of what I understand about culture and history has been given second-hand though additionally a good deal comes from what I have inferred and drawn conclusions on.

Experiential knowledge:
This area is slightly higher for me mostly because I think that 16 years of experience is a reasonable amount. I have always been an observant and introverted person so I learn a lot from my everyday experiences.

Secret knowledge:
Again since I’m an introvert, I believe there is a lot I choose not to share with people. Not because certain experiences / information is traumatising but because there are a lot of things that I believe to be deeply personal.

Incommunicable knowledge:
This refers to knowledge that may be more emotional and personally linked to yourself and incommunicable. I would like to believe there is a lot of this within me but really it is so difficult to judge (and to communicate!)

End of Year Service Reflection

At the end of the year now, I have completed service activities both within and out of school. Within the school community, for the past year I have been a member of the Environmental Club. What we do in the club is all to promote environmental sustainability and to raise awareness about key environmental issues both within and outside of the school. Some of the activities that we have done this year are organising beach cleanups, giving presentations and other activities, and making posters and signs for the school. Outside of school, I participated in some service work via helping out younger kids in a community theatre production. Though I was in the production as a cast member, I also participated by volunteering as a stage manager to manage to sound and lighting of the show and also organising things backstage such as makeup and cleaning up. Now that the year is ending, I am able to reflect on what I have done throughout this year.
Photographic Evidence of Service Done:
(Picture of the E-Club Facebook chat where we share ideas and talk over things)
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(Tech notes being made during process of helping with theatre production)
(Photo taken in booth on night of performance)
I became more aware of my own strengths and areas for growth through these service activities. I discovered that I feel quite passionate about the environment, as shown by my participation within the school community and I also found a newfound interest in helping out backstage in theatre. Some areas of growth would be interacting with others though. I found that sometimes when presenting to other people or children I can feel quite uncomfortable and this is something that I can work on as to put myself out there for more service activities. I developed new communication skills from encountering these challenges though, as since I had to work with children or people who sometimes had differing opinions, I worked on my people skills. I, myself didn’t organise a lot of activities by myself but this could be something to look forward to in next year though. I will be able to persevere and put myself out there more by maybe applying for an executive position in environmental club next year.
I think the ethical implications of my actions are quite positive as I was helping engage others to solve environmental issues and to develop their own skills and passion in theatre. Working with others on these important causes has helped me see the importance of international open-mindedness and service in all.

Music Composition Inspiration and Final Reflection

I have now finally finished my composition for music class. I am quite happy that I have finally finished this piece that seems to have taken quite a lot of time and musical ability to complete and with this I am also very proud that I have been able to incorporate a lot of what I have learnt this term into my piece. Before I even started this piece however, I merely had one photo that acted as a source of inspiration.


This simple drawing by Picasso was my original piece of inspiration for my piece. I chose it as I really enjoyed the mood the piece created as it felt quite serene but also exciting and I believe that the two sides to the picture – the dove and the human face – could represent two different sides or parts to the piece. Because of this my original goal for the piece was the create a composition that contained at least two contrasting sections and that created a peaceful mood. The picture also strikes me as being slightly melancholic or sad so I drew from this that I would want the composition to be predominantly slower and in a minor key. With these goals (minor key, mostly slow but with contrasting faster section, peaceful but continuous mood) I finally set out to create my piece.

Now that I have finished my composition I strongly believe that I have been able to accomplish this goal. In my final song I believe I met these criteria and my ultimate goal. The song is in a minor and starts with a very slow chord progression which is continued for a majority of the song. The B section of the song is much faster and contrasts with the A section yet the final part of the piece where it breaks away still retains a calmer and reflective mood which it brings all the way to the outro of the piece. The tempos alternate from moderato to presto and back to moderato at the end. Because of this, my final composition is title ‘Retreat’ and I strongly believe it represents my picture inspiration as when I hear the piece myself and see the drawing I am able to connect the two as if they were made for each other (which technically one of them is!)

Furthermore, my composition shows my creativity in a myriad of ways as well. The structure of the piece itself is the main piece of evidence supporting this as within the piece I almost created my own structure for song. Originally I thought I would have an A-B-A structure but in the end it felt too binding for the song and I broke free and created a sort of mixed structure that went INTRO-A SECTION-BRIDGE (MODULATION OF INTRO)-B SECTION-BREAK/CODA-OUTRO (MODULATION OF INTRO). This meant I had an occurring motif of a chord progression shown in the intro, bridge, and the end which carried the piece along. Additionally I was able to try more things with the piece with this structure. I also used instrumentation that I typically haven’t used before such as the use of string instruments so it was very interesting for me to take creative liberties with my piece.

Finally, I am able to give myself a final evaluation for my finished piece. Overall I think my piece is quite successful and includes a wide range of different non chord tones and musical items that I have learnt over this period, but also I was able to try things beyond the criteria of the rubrics and what was expected of me. I believe the most successful part in the composition is the recurring motif and the continual chord progression. I really enjoy that I was able to build on a simple four chord progression that was present throughout the entire piece. My other favourite part were the two melodies that were going on between the violin and the cello quite a lot. As a part of a harmonic two part melody, the cello would often be repeating or imitating what the violin had played earlier which created a very interesting dynamic between the two instruments as technically they would be playing the same parts but at different times. What I still wish I could improve about the piece is that sometimes I felt compelled to add notes or cadences because I felt I had to as to adhere to the expected standards and items in the piece. This sometimes makes the melody seem a little forced and if I had more time I think I would spend more time trying to fix this.

In terms of melody, I believe my use of phrasing and countermelody was very successful. I also extensively used imitation and repetition between the violin and cello parts as mentioned earlier, which I believe worked very successfully. In terms of harmony, with the use of melodies going on at the same time, there was some harmony and sometimes with final notes of phrases I would utilise harmony but I still would want to use some more if I had the chance.

Texture was shown through the use of heterophonic or polyphonic parts which alternated throughout the piece. I also used canon in both my A and B section along with this which created quite a comfortable mix of melodies together. Perhaps I could have incorporated more instruments into the mix of texture and harmony more however.

Rhythm was something that was both consistent and inconsistent in my piece. In the piano and harp part which supported the melody more, there was less change in the style of rhythm apart from between sections whereas with violin and cello, rhythm there was quite a variety of rhythms presented throughout the piece. I could have incorporated more metrical patterns into my piece but I believe overall rhythm worked well for the piece.

Dynamics and articulation in the piece were something that I initially had difficulties with as my piece was quite length and I needed quite a lot of time to get to where I was happy with all the control of dynamics and the articulation provided. Dynamics changed between the A section and B section quite a lot but overall the piece was mostly a more quiet piece. With articulation, the only articulation I used for the most part were slurs as even though I tried trills and staccatos I found it didn’t suit the mood of the piece very well and I changed them around quite a lot.

Overall however, I am extremely happy with how my piece turned out and I have learnt a lot about composition and my own style of music in the process of creation as well.

Comments on other people’s blogs:

On Derrick’s:


On Henrique’s:

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Music Composition Progress Update #2

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I have made quite a lot of progress since the last time I reflected on the piece, in that I have now basically finished the melody as a whole. It has been a big learning progress, especially with cadences as through this process I have had to find new kinds of cadences that I haven’t used before as to suit my piece. I have also started putting in markings and articulation at this point but I believe that I will still be changing things further at this point. I am unsure in some sections as to whether I want the piece to be more slurred and legato or whether I want the piece to be more rigid and staccato in those sections.

Peer feedback has been immensely positive as of yet but I have received some comments on what I could change. There were some phrases that a bit awkward which I may change. One key piece of feedback that I received is that a part of the bridge drags on quite a lot and I will now go over it to see what I can change. Overall at this point, I am quite satisfied with what I have in my composition so far and I hope in the next week I will be able to improve it further.

Music Composition Progress Update #1

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At this point in the creation of my composition, I have created a skeleton for my piece as a whole. What this means is that I have a chord progression set that I hope to continue throughout most of the song. What my ideal plan would be is to have modulations of the same progression throughout the piece as well as build upon so that the progression becomes very multi layered and not too repetitive. At this point I have also just started building the melody and even though I don’t have much as of yet in terms of solid phrases or motifs, I think that I am starting to be able to envision what I would like.

Even though I do not have much yet at this point, I am still able to reflect on the strengths and weaknesses and I have additionally received some peer feedback on the initial progression. I like the progression that I have built already – which is a good thing as I plan to build an entire piece around it – and I think it allows me to have a lot of free reign over what I can create. What I don’t want to happen is for the progression to just be the centrepiece of the song and be too repetitive. A peer commented on the progression and initial melody that it very effectively establishes a mood straight away.

History Documentary Reflection

Here is my group’s finished history documentary! In this film, we explore the political, economical, and social impacts of refugees from the Chinese Civil War on Hong Kong in the 1950s.

For this project, I was the film editor and I also wrote and recorded the music used throughout the background of the film. This really involved sitting over a computer screen for a considerable amount of time juggling around different audio files and footage. The film was edited in iMovie and unlike my group members, my job started quite late into the process. Though I helped both the director and videographer in my group, the real work came after everything was planned and filmed. At that point then I had an empty iMovie project and more footage than I would be able to fit in the film as a whole. Throughout the process of editing, I learnt about many new features and ways of editing a film that I previously had not known how to do or understand before. This included features such as speed editing, green screen, and audio effects. With both the research I did into editing, as well as the experience I gained from editing this film, I have a much deeper understanding and appreciation for film editing as it requires a lot of skills and both creative and technical ability. I had to be able to create a logical narrative for the film with the amount of footage that we had and also had to somewhat relate it to the script that we as a group had written. There were a lot of times when the directors plan called for footage and things that we didn’t have in the end, so I had to take some creative liberties and find the best way to present the group’s vision. Some other changes that happened to the group’s first plan was that originally we had decided to have more or a storytelling narrative but as we progressed in editing and tweaking everything, the tone and mood of our film transformed into something much more reflective. We also included more historical footage than originally planned as we found it really helped audiences understand the scenes and times more.

Overall, creating with the group and editing this documentary had been a great experience and has helped me understand both Hong Kong’s history as well as documentaries and filmmaking. I hope to be able to use the skills I gained in this project in future filmmaking endeavours as I believe this will lead to more successful and professional looking films.

Line 120 Reflection

How do you think you did with your performance assessment? Did you perform as well as you thought you would, or not?

The performance assessment was on line 120 from our book: the well known Swan Lake theme. Overall I think I did quite well with the performance assessment of Swan Lake but sadly I don’t think I performed as well as I had hoped. I do believe I went in and did better than previous performances however. I felt more confident in my practicing and my ability this time performing but I still believe overall there is a lot that I could continue to work in terms of musical elements and ability.

If you performed worse than you expected, explain why. If you performed better than you expected, explain why.

I think I performed worse than expected despite being more comfortable with my performance this time around. The main reason behind this was my nerves I believe. In the morning before I performed I was feeling quite good in terms of my sound and playing ability but as soon as I started playing by myself in the test I think I froze up a bit. I’ve had this problem before so I expected it but it is still irritating and hindering to my performance. When playing flute, I am very used to playing in an ensemble such as in class or within band in school. It is not as common for me to be playing by myself within school or directly in front of teachers or examiners by myself. The nerves issue itself is quite frustrating to me, especially since I know I can play better. There are some ways I believe I can improve in this aspect of performance and that includes being more confident with my overall flute playing ability. I have faced the same stage fright issue in other topics and classes such as dance or drama and I have found the best way to improve on my confidence is to actually have confidence in myself. I would need to take time to become more comfortable with my playing and musical ability as a whole to get better at performing. Another way I could improve upon the issue to not focus on the assessment at task as much and more to lose myself in the music. I have actually found this tactic to be helpful in flute exams as when you have studied one piece of music for many months you could play it blindfolded and thus I found if you focused on enjoying your own music in the exam instead of focusing on the actual examiner and your nerves, you would feel more comfortable playing and thus be able to ‘perform’ more.

Explain your rehearsal process.

My rehearsal process always begins with a warm-up every single time. A typical warm-up for my flute playing (if I had enough time) would include slowly going up in long tones from my lowest note to my highest possible notes on the flute and then playing slurred fifths and scales, going up in key signatures. Once I have enough warm air in my flute and I am in tune I will often play scales and such in the key signature of the piece I am focusing on so I can get into the mind-set of those notes in the key signature. Then usually I will start playing the piece. The first few times I ever rehearse a piece, I play it through all the way to the best extent of my ability so I can see the areas I need to work on. After that I work through each part of the piece bit by bit until I can piece all the parts together. The first aspect I focus on at these points are note accuracy, rhythm accuracy, and breathing and once I have reached success in those areas I begin to focus more on my overall tone, dynamics, and performance aspects such as putting emotion or movement into the piece. In subsequent rehearsals if I don’t have enough time to go through all of this I will simply practice the piece a few times, improving upon aspects each time.

Which of the following was the most successful: note accuracy, rhythm accuracy, articulation, dynamics, tone quality, breathing/phrasing? Explain why.

I believe my most successful aspect in my performance that is listed above was rhythm accuracy. I am usually very good at keeping notes at an even pace and following along to a consistent beat and I believe in this performance, despite some mistakes, I managed to continue and stay on track and on correct beats and rhythms for a majority of the piece. When performing I usually try to keep a consistent tempo in my head and sometimes I find it helps to tap my foot or tense a calf muscle to this beat to act as a body tempo. If I find this difficult to do standing up, I usually find that the tempo inside my head is quite consistent and accurate.

Which of the following was the least successful: note accuracy, rhythm accuracy, articulation, dynamics, tone quality, breathing/phrasing? Explain why.

I believe that I could work more on my breathing/phrasing from my performance earlier. During the performance there were moments during the long slurs when I felt out of breath and I took some breaths in bad places in the middle of a phrase simply because I needed to breath. I think some of my weakness in this area during my performance can be attributed to my nerves as stated earlier as when I get nervous I find it harder to control my breathing and support. Perhaps I can find ways to work on my breathing in connection to confidence whilst performing. I think my phrasing could be improved in general as well due to my phrasing for the second half of the piece being less clear.

How can you specifically (not musicians in general) improve your level of skill in a realistic manner?

As said earlier, I believe the biggest area of improvement for my performing is the control of my nerves during performances. I think it is quite difficult to find realistic ways to improve this but I believe it is something that can be gradually improved on. The most realistic way of improving on it that I could think of would be to actually find more opportunities to perform. An explanation behind this was that I used to be terrified of performing in drama despite loving theatre and acting. I found however, that after the years that as I performed in more shows and classes, that this year during drama class and in the musicals and plays I have been in, I have been able to go on stage with little to no nerves now. I attribute this to finding more chances to perform and thus becoming more comfortable with myself as an actor which I believe is the same thing that I need to do for playing the flute.

Discuss how another musician has inspired you to be more successful (this could be someone in school out in the community, or can be someone who doesn’t even play the same instrument as you).

I believe someone that has inspired me to be more successful has been my flute teacher outside of school. I’ve been taking lessons with her for three years now so she has seen my growth as a flautist and has always been there as not only a teacher but a constant source of feedback and inspiration. Now that she knows me quite well she has always found ways to help and encourage me with my performance in flute and with many other things outside of music in general. She has given me some of the best flute tips and lessons I’ve ever learnt but even more than that she has always been supportive, even when I faced failure and disappointments with flute performance so she has always been someone who has inspired me to be more successful.

An interview with my dad for a project in Chinese class. 我的爸爸的暑期工经验。

The Questions (in both Chinese and English)

What was your summer job? 在你小的时候有什么暑期工?

Could you describe your summer job? 在你的暑期工你做什么?

What was the best part of your summer job? 在你的暑期工你最喜欢的部分欢什么?

What was the worst part of your summer job? 在你的暑期工你最不喜欢的部分欢什么

Did you enjoy your summer job? 你喜欢你的暑期工吗?

Do you think having a summer job helped you for when you had a real job? Why? 你觉得你的暑期工作帮你当你有一个真正的工作呢?为什么?

Do you think it’s important for kids nowadays to have summer jobs? Why? 你觉得孩子现在有暑期工作是很重要的吗?



Plan for Practice

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Information and Explanation About Plan

For my plan I hope to able to evenly split my practice time and have enough time to practice sufficiently but also plan around the other activities I will have to do during half term break and the week that the recording is due. I decided that since I wouldn’t have a huge amount of time every day to practice I would split up the lines so I would alternate and practice a line every other day. On the first day and the last days I would delegate more time to practicing and recording so I would practice both pieces to get a better understanding and grasp on the pieces before recording. It may seem detrimental to record on the day before the project is due but by leaving it for quite a while it gives me more time to practice and perfect the piece. I knew it would be a challenge to play the pieces as the expected tempo for each piece is quite fast and I will need to focus on speed, note accuracy, and articulation.


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Record of Practice

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Summary of Practice

When I first started playing the piece I thought it was quite difficult as it was in a key signature I was not completely used to playing in and also there were some difficult sections of rhythm that had to be played quite quickly in the expected tempo of 120 beats per minute. The main methods I used for practicing this piece were clapping the rhythm of the piece and humming through the melody as to ensure I was familiar with the piece as originally it had some quite confusing rhythms in a few bars. Over the time I practiced I also gradually sped up my playing of the piece so I would eventually get up to the expected tempo. This involved playing it at a tempo until I was comfortable playing it at the speed before moving up to the next increment of speed. I found I had to wait until my articulation was correct before moving up otherwise when I would play it faster I would lose some of the correct articulation. Overall by focusing on the rhythm and note articulation I eventually got comfortable with the note accuracy and the piece in general.

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Record of Practice

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Summary of Practice

The most difficult aspect of playing this line would be the tempo since the expected tempo of 80 beats per minute was quite fast considering a majority of the notes in the piece were sixteenth notes. I decided then to practice by progressing through the week and playing faster each time I was comfortable at the previous tempo done. The piece itself was not too technically difficult but I found if I wasn’t comfortable with the tempo yet I would either rush playing the piece or I would end up slurring the entire runs in each bar instead of utilising the correct articulation. A method of practice I used at the beginning of practice would be to familiarise myself with the scales played by playing scales in the key signature. The major methods of practice I used for this line were clapping out the rhythm to familiarise myself with it and then gradually increasing the speed as I have already explained. In the end I believe this helped a lot to bring up the tempo of the piece.



In conclusion each piece was challenging in its own aspects but both pieces were more difficult due to the expected speed for recording them. Neither piece was extremely technically difficult but because the tempo for each piece meant needing to play quite quickly, I would have to become very familiar with the melody and articulation of notes in the piece so when the tempo was brought up I wouldn’t lose these crucial elements. Though I used slightly different approaches to practicing for either piece the most helpful method of practice I found was to gradually bring up the tempo of playing the piece over a period of time meaning I would play it at a tempo until I was comfortable playing it at that speed and then bring up the tempo and repeat the process. I believe this method was extremely useful for increasing the tempo whilst still retaining the musical elements needed to play successfully.


Final Heart Valve Model

I have now reached the end of the ‘creating the solution’ process of the design cycle for my artificial heart valve model. Translation for non-design folk: this means I have now finished creating a final product of an artificial heart model that I will soon show to grade 6 students to educate them on the structure and purpose of a heart valve. My final model was based off of a prototype I built and improved upon during the creation of this final product. Here is a small photo of what my final prototype looked like.

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And here is what my final model design looks like.

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The designs may look completely different but the scientific principles behind each model are the same. Below is a short video of myself talking about my final product and how it works.

The main changes I made to my design through the creating process were to do with making it a more attractive model to present. I changed the shape of the physical valve to a rounder shape with a more lenient material to make the valve work better in terms of only allowing water through one way. I have also added a stand to my final design so it can stand on itself during presenting. Apart from those differences, the other clear differences are that the bands and glue holding the model together have been hidden under the cover material to make the valve more visually appealing. I have a lot of pride in this final model and only can hope the bonds of super glue are strong enough to keep the model together when in the rough hands of 6th graders.