Sonia’s Healthy Habits


Healthy movement –

Walk 7000 steps per day

Take part in a physical activity 3 times a week.

Healthy food –

Bring a healthy snack to school at least twice per week 

Cut back on processed food and increase real food.

Read nutritional information on food products to guide your food choices.

Healthy sleep –

No processed foods/sugar 3 hrs before bed.

Drink herbal tea and read a book/magazine 30-60min before bed.

Healthy thoughts –

Get out in nature at least 2 times a week

Follow a 5-10 minute meditation video 2-3 times a week

Try to Laugh daily

Science and Pseudoscience

The Claim: The distinction between science and pseudoscience is unclear.

To prove whether or not this is true, we should first understand what science and pseudoscience is. Science is the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment, in simpler words, it is a branch of knowledge, where knowledge is built and organized in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual but are incompatible with the scientific method.

The claim above states that the distinction between science and pseudoscience is unclear. This means that there is no clear difference between science and pseudoscience. To begin with, the name of both topics are similar, with the exception of pseudo. The definition of pseudo is not genuine, a sham, used to mark something that superficially appears to be (or behaves like) one thing, but is something else. In other words, pseudoscience is not genuine science.

The main argument for the claim that the distinction between science and pseudoscience is clear, is because science is based on scientific experiments and data. In science, in order for something to be considered a theory or a law, it is proved through continuous testing. For example, the cell theory came to be through endless testing, and through these testings, there had been a basic pattern which is how the cell theory came to be. Science is based on well-established, repeating patterns and regularities in nature, and most importantly, consistency. Pseudoscience is a collection of assertions that do not satisfy the requirements and practices of true science, therefore there is a clear distinction between the two topics. Thomas Kuhn and Karl Popper had both made very solid claims with their idea of falsification. No amount of data can really prove a theory, but that even a single key data point can potentially disprove it. Popper advocated falsification as a tool to distinguish science from non-science (and from nonsense). This is what could have distinguished science from pseudoscience. Those that did not follow the general pattern or results are disregarded as proper science.

While it may seem simple, the difference between science and pseudoscience, we are in the day and age where science is developing so quickly. With so many experiments done, it is hard to catch up with all of the new data. Amidst all these experiments, there are many papers, many data that go against each other. If we followed Kuhn and Popper’s idea of falsification, these papers and ideas would immediately be disregarded. Popper’s idea that ‘no amount of data can confirm a theory’ can be called irrational, due to the many current theories we currently have. Nowadays, scientists usually do not need to confirm a theory one hundred percent in order to trust and use it, in more cases, a theory only needs to be good enough.  While this may go against the basic science standard of consistency, there is a reason behind every (most) ‘failure’ experiments, such as a flawed apparatus, or the statistics have gone wrong.

In conclusion, through the two arguments, I believe that there is a clear distinction between science and pseudoscience. Firstly, pseudoscience is a collection of assertations that have not been backed up by any experimental data whatsoever. It is simple claims that have come to be hypothetical ideas. Though science may not always be one hundred percent consistent, it just has to be ‘correct enough’, and be backed up by enough evidence to prove the theory true. The idea of falsification in science is an interesting idea that can be used as a guideline, but it should not be used to base whether or not a theory or law is true. Falsification does not blur the lines between science and pseudoscience, as pseudoscience is based of claims and not evidence. While falsification many prove some theories otherwise, we should only take this information with a grain of salt. In which science covers a wide range of ideas, it is important to know the clear difference between science and pseudoscience.

Competing hypotheses in NS

The question: How can scientists decide between competing hypotheses?

In science, a hypothesis is an idea or explanation that you then test through study and experimentation. Science experiments are based off hypotheses. To answer this question, we should understand what is a hypothesis? A hypothesis is a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation. When deciding between competing hypotheses,


Introduction to the Natural Sciences

Consider a claim in history such as: “Napoleon was a great leader”.

Why would such a claim not be considered ‘scientific’?

This claim is not considered scientific because this is a subjective claim. To determine whether someone was a ‘great’ leader or not is very subjective, it cannot be backed up by scientific evidence, such as an experiment. This is also a claim that cannot be repeated or done again, to really see if he was a great leader. Secondly, as this is to do with politics and the public opinion of a leader, it would be not be considered scientific. ‘Great’ is also too broad of a word, great could have many different interpretations to it.

First Order and Second Order TOK Claims

Biology 1st Order Claim: All living things are made of cells

Biology 2nd Order Claim: Scientific claims must be backed up by scientific research.


  1. How will scientific claims be backed up scientific research?
  2. Do scientific claims have to be backed up by research?
  3. How are scientific claims known to be true?
  4. Can humans ever be certain?

Exploring these TOK questions will allow us to better understand the real order claim as we are able to think more about how these claims come to be. By understanding and knowing how these claims come to be, explaining and learning more deeply about these claims will be easier.



Intro to Language as a WOK

“Do the problems of language always limit the production of knowledge?”

The problems of language do limit the production of knowledge. One of the main ways we spread and gain knowledge is through verbal communication. If we are unable to use our main form of communication, we are automatically disadvantaged compared do those who are able to. When problems, questions and thoughts arise, we tend to speak to others to gain or pass information. Without the skills to verbally communicating, our ability to produce knowledge is limited. For example, during a discussion in a class, if we are unable to speak to each other, how can we share our knowledge? Sign language, writing to each other, are all languages, so how would we be able to share our knowledge if we didn’t use these ways? In a smaller scale, where using different phrases instead of others to explain something, would this limit the production of knowledge? Well it could to a certain extent, like in the virus/beast reading, different words have different connotations. This wouldn’t neccarcily limit the production of knowledge, but it would get people to think different and feel differently.

WOK and Knowledge

The arts go against the weaknesses of perception as many have different opinions on the way they view art. In order for something to be called art, the viewer has to see an artistic intention in the work, for it to be described as art. A piece of work of paint splatted on a piece of paper would be considered art for someone, while another simply sees it as sprayed paint on a sheet of paper. Many people also perceive the meaning of art differently. Art relies upon a sense of perception – in both the viewer’s observation of the piece and the personal insights of the artist.  The artist may not get his/her point across with their work, as the viewer may see something completely different than the implied meaning.

Knowledge and Explaining – Reflection

What do you think TOK is, and why does the IB make you take it?

I think TOK is questioning our knowledge about the world and trying to understand why things are the way they are. In my opinion, the IB makes us take this subject in order for us to be able to reflect on our knowledge and be aware of who we are as thinkers, leading us to truly understand the knowledge that we possess.


Grade 10 Service as Action Learning Outcomes

as well as participating in 4 Cas trips over grades 7-10. I have been to Sabah, new Zealand, Phuket, and Inner Mongolia. I have also joined the reading tree buddy reading program, breast cancer foundation walks and wwf Half marathon.

How did you become more aware of your own strengths and areas for growth?

I became more aware of my strengths and areas for growth through my participation in many service events. After doing several events, I realized that I enjoyed doing the more physical activity rather than personally connecting with individuals such as children. My strength would be working independently, as I have done many charity hikes and runs alone. I realized an area I could grow would be being a better communicator and to be more comfortable with working with strangers.

How did you undertake challenges that developed new skills?

I had many physical challenges, such as feeling tired and not able to finish a run/hike, or I found the build trips quite gruelling. Through the service activities, I have learnt how to be resilient and take more risks, especially during the CAS trips. I undertook challenges such as hiking on unpaved paths in a jungle, where I felt very out of my comfort zone, but I learnt how to be a risk taker. I also developed my communicating skills, as I found connecting with strangers quite difficult in the past, but now I am more comfortable with working with them.

How did you discuss, evaluate and plan student-initiated activities?

By joining the Habitat build tip, I have evaluated a student-initiated activity. During the building, I have led the team to find the most effective methods on how to properly build while making use of our time. When laying bricks, I have helped my peers and taught them how to properly lay one.

How did you persevere in action?

I persevered in action while doing physically gruelling activities. Though it was difficult, I continued to work hard to ensure that I could finish/reach my goal. Running the half marathon was one of the most difficult tasks for me as I have not trained as a running, and did not have much running experience, but I managed to finish the race while advocating for animal rights.

How did you work collaboratively with others?

I worked collaboratively with other during the building trip as we had to move bricks, dig dirt and lay bricks together. Everything we did was in a team. I also worked collaboratively during the paint your glove & hat event, we had to connect with our members and organize our roles wisely so that the event would be organized, during this, we also connected with younger children while we drew with them.

How did you develop international-mindedness through global engagement, multilingualism and intercultural understanding?

Going on CAS trips allowed me to connect with the locals residing in the area, and we got to learn about their cultures while sharing ours. I realized that everyone had different ways of living. and that taught me how to have a more international mindset.

How did you consider the ethical implications of your actions?

Before doing any action, I would think how it would affect the people surrounding the area and also how it would affect the environment. If I felt like it affected others, I would not do it.

Passport Simulation Exercise

What was it like to be a national of this country?

It is quite nice to be a national of Australia as many countries allowed me to enter without a visa. Iran was the only country to request a visa, but even so, it was a visa on arrival. There were no problems with ‘border control’ and everything went very smoothly.

How did the exercise make you feel as a passport holder and a border control officer?

As a passport holder of Australia, I didn’t feel very nervous or scared to ask to enter the country. This is because Australia is quite an open country and didn’t have any troubles with other countries, unlike countries such as Iran. As a border control officer, I felt in power as I was the one to tell people if they were able to enter or not. As the border control officer of Iran, I expected that many people needed visas to enter, and I was correct.

What you take away from this exercise?

From this exercise, I understood how much passports connected to political issues. Such as when the trump administration came into power, he banned many middle eastern countries, which sparked a debate. With countries such as Switzerland, who did not enter into political discussions, their passport allowed them to go to many places.  

Has this changed your idea of what it means to be free at all?

No much, as I realized how passports affected people traveling to other places. Even the freest passports, such as Singapore, needs visas to enter some countries, so it is not really free.

Do you feel gratitude for your passport?

I feel gratitude towards my passport, as it allows me to enter many countries without much issue. Although there are still many African countries that I am unable to enter without a visa, I feel much gratitude for my passport.