Welcome to your iFolio

Your iFolio is a school provided web space that you will use throughout your time at CDNIS. You will use your iFolio to define your learning goals, show your learning journey, reflect on your learning and how you have developed your Approaches to Learning skills, share your best work and celebrate your achievements.

Your iFolio, in time will provide a better picture of who you are as a learner and as an individual. You are therefore highly encouraged to personalize your iFolio. You can start off by selecting one of the 60+ themes available.

Before you start using your new iFolio, follow the steps below to change the ‘Home’ link within your navigation menu to point to your site:

1. Go to your Dashboard menu options (link will open in a new tab)

2. Expand the ‘Home’ menu item by clicking on the downward facing arrow

Home Menu

Change Home Menu Attribute

3. Append the URL to read, where your student number is in the form of six digits e.g. 012345 (you can find your student number on your library card)

Home URL

Home URL Link

A final note, please bear in mind that your iFolio is a publicly accessible space, and ensure that the content you post and the language you use is appropriate.

Feel free to delete this post from your Dashboard once you have finished reading it!

Featured image used in this post by Nathan via Flickr Creative Commons

Competing Hypothesis

How can scientists decide between competing hypotheses?

I think that one of the most simple ways that scientists are able to decide between competing hypothesis is through scientifical, practical experiments with statistics to prove one hypothesis is more reliable and accurate than another. Another way to decide between competing hypothesis is through using Occam’s Razor theory. This basically means that if there are two hypothesis that ends up with the same outcome, you should choose the one with the less moving parts or variables that could alter the experiment.

Science vs Pseudoscience

What are the main differences between Science and Pseudoscience?

There are many different aspects of science and pseudoscience that makes them different from each other, however, for the sake of simplicity, I will simplify it to 3 main differences. The first main difference is that science uses careful observation and experimentation to confirm or reject a hypothesis whereas pseudoscience starts off with a hypothesis and only looks for evidence to support it and ignores contradicting evidence. Another main difference is that science convinces people by using measurable, mathematical and scientific data. On the other hand, pseudoscience attempts to persuade through using emotions, faith, and distrust of facts. The final main differentiating aspect is that science argues a point through the use of scientific knowledge and the result of experiments done. Pseudoscience tends to argue a point through ignorance and lack of scientific knowledge.

Is the distinction between science and pseudoscience equally as unclear as art and not art?

I think that the distinction between pseudoscience and science is not “equally” as unclear as what art is and isn’t. This is because what art is and isn’t is so much broader and open to interpretation, whereas something like science can be classified into different aspects, such as it has to be measurable or repeatable. Another way of thinking about it is that it would be extremely hard to classify the differences between a piece of art or not. For example, a plane could be a piece of art to someone, but not to someone else. Overall, art is more subjective to one’s emotions and personal experiences and because everyone has their own ideas of what art can be it is a lot more unclear.

Natural Science in TOK

What distinguishes Natural Science from other AOKs?

I think that the main distinguishing factor that differentiates natural science to other areas of knowledge is that there needs to be hard evidence. This means that the claim or the answer to a question needs to testable, measurable and verifiable. Although there are many other characteristics of a natural science claim or answer, in my opinion, these are the three most crucial ones that differentiate it from anything else.

“Napoleon was a great leader” – Why is this claim not scientific?

As said above, for a claim to be scientific it needs to fit into certain guidelines, which includes being able to test it, measure it and verify it. In this circumstance, the claim that is being made is “Napoleon was a great leader.”. This claim is not testable, measurable or verifiable in any way. Furthermore, this claim is biased which further distances itself from a scientific claim as it is more of an opinion of someone, rather than a factual piece of evidence.

Identify any questions that you still have.

No questions as of now.

Introduction to Knowledge Questions

  • First Order Knowledge Claim: 
  • Spending more than 2 hours a day on social media can lead to depression and anxiety issues.

  • Second Order Knowledge Claim:
  • Excessive use of technology can lead to mental health problems.

    Knowledge Question:

  • How do we measure mental health and the causes of it?

  • Why is the knowledge question relevant to real life situation:
  • This knowledge question is highly relevant in real life situations. One of the ways that by answering this question it would benefit the community is in medication. If we are able to sufficiently understand when someone is anxious or depressed in more grave detail we can then have the ability to medicate the individual more specifically. Furthermore, by knowing what exactly causes the depression and anxiety, or even other mental health problems we can stop it at the root of the problem to try and save the next generation from falling into the same hole.
  • Provide an example of another real-life situation that the knowledge question can be applied to:
  • Besides social media, we could obviously use this for other means of technology. For example, one of the other sectors of technology that is really controversial, in that whether or not it is good or not is gaming. This question can be applied to gaming. Answering the same question, but in the context of gaming instead of social media would also still be very useful and beneficial to answer due to the masses of people who perhaps play video games too much on a daily bases.

Getting to the TOK


Starting with a first order (real life) claim from one of your DP classes, explain what second order (TOK) claims it suggests.

Studying for and writing dictations will help with memorising Chinese words. This first order claim suggests that memorising is an effective way of learning a language.

Articulate the questions that might be interesting/useful to explore them in response to the TOK level claims.

One question that could be very interesting to explore is to find out whether memorising is a truly effective way of learning a foreign language, and if so, how effective?

Explain how exploring the TOK question is relevant/useful to better understanding or deal with the real life claim.

This question is extremely relevant and useful to real life matters. This is because by finding out and presenting data on how effective memorising is as a form of learning a language could change the way that we learn at school. For example, if the answer that derives from that question is that memorising is one of the worst ways of learning a language. This answer could be presented to teachers and possibly be able to change their teaching methods.

Language as a WOK

“The problems of language always limit the production of knowledge”.

I think that it is important to underline what some of the problems of language are. I think that the main problem that comes with language is that there are so many different types of languages, this includes obviously different verbal languages, but also various types of language, such as body language, hand language, etc. By having so many different types of languages it means that there is no universal language that everyone can understand which thus brings up the problem that only a select amount of people will understand the knowledge that is being produced. For example, if I am speaking in Italian to my family, roughly only half the people will understand as only one side of my family is Italian and is able to understand what i’m saying. This can clearly effect the production of knowledge as if someone literally cannot understand the form of communication or language you are sharing the knowledge in it will damage the production of knowledge, whatever that might be.

Another one of the main problems with language in the production of knowledge is that every single word, action or form of language has a connotation or denotation attached to it. This is a problem because one word or gesture could mean something very different from one person to the next. I think that this is mostly based on the experiences with that word or gesture the individual has had. For example, if I said to my friend who is an cockroach lover that “my dad is like a cockroach”. To me I perceive him as a threat and a pest in my life, however my friend, who is a cockroach lover might think that being like a cockroach is a compliment and gives off positive connotations.

Considering those 2 big points I have to agree with the statement above. This is because every form of language, no matter what can be viewed differently, by every single individual on this earth. That means that although language is a very effective tool of conversing with other people to share knowledge, it will always hold a barrier that everyone views the language in a unique way.

Emotion as a WOK

  • Choose one of the claims about emotion. (not one that you discussed in class)
  • Outline arguments that support the claim: provide REAL and SPECIFIC Examples.
  • Put forward a counter-argument with supporting REAL and Specific Examples.
  • REWRITE the original claim to be more accurate or representative of your discussion(s)

“A good historian strives to be as unemotional as possible, this is the only way to write accurate history.”

Support: This statement is somewhat true as to be a reliable historian you are expected to present mostly factual information, instead of portraying your emotions on a topic. By being as “unemotional as possible” a historian is able to successfully capture all of the facts of what happened in the past.

Against: However, by being so unemotional, a historian is unable to dig deeper and understand how an individual feels about a certain topic. For example, to understand and gain the full truth of what happened to someone in the holocaust a historian will have to tap into another individuals feelings and be able to convert that into knowledge.

WOKs as double edged swords – Nico

Role of imagination in History:

The role of imagination in history is very monumental. Imagination is used very often in history to fill in the gaps in time that is often missed in history. This is because not everything in the history of life can be factually recorded, this is where imagination takes place. As said before imagination is used in history as a sort of educated guess at what happened at a specific time and place.

Double edged sword of memory:

Memory is very much a “double edged sword”, memory is based upon what people think happened, this means that it is very easy for someones memory of what happened to veer off track or differ from what actually happened. The way that History is able to guard against the weaknesses of memory is through checking with a multitude of different sources. Furthermore, we can guard against the weakness of memory in history by checking with more sources, this will enable us to triangulate the “true” story of what happened.

What is TOK?

What I thought TOK was before: “I think that TOK is to learn about where the knowledge we consume comes from.”

What I think TOK is now: I think that TOK is the understanding of knowledge in certain subjects. TOK also challenges the knowledge that we have obtained by delving deeper to understand whether the knowledge we know is true. I also think that TOK is a course that will allow us to learn where information and knowledge comes from and where it originates. Another aspect of TOK is to understand ways of learning, for example whether language is needed to understand something.

Why I thought the IB made us take TOK: “I think the IB makes us take it because it is extremely relevant and important to understand where our knowledge comes from.

Why I think the IB make us take TOK: I now think

Service as Action Reflection – Nico

  1. How did you become more aware of your own strengths and areas for growth?

Through teaching these underprivileged kids I was able to use my skills and knowledge of drills in football to improve their skills. Most importantly, I was able to communicate with the kids through the use of basic body language and through learning some basic Tagalog words. I think that one of the weaknesses that I had during this service was my determination. For me it was very hard to keep motivated and determined while coaching as the sessions were very long and strenuous due to the heat in the Philippines.

  1. How did you undertake challenges that developed new skills?

One of the challenges that I was confronted with was to organise an event. For example, when I was organising a river cleanup near my home I had to plan out various goals, volunteers, logistical planning. As the river that I wanted to cleanup was near my home I decided to ask around the local village to ask my family friends and neighbours if they wanted to be a part of this service. This built not only new organisational skills, but also new communication and social skills.

  1. How did you discuss, evaluate and plan student-initiated activities?

For my P.P. I was organising an event for underprivileged refugees in Hong Kong. While organising this event I had to discuss various plans with the head of the Free To Run charity. This included going to her office to verbally communicate in order to discuss and devise the plan that I had in mind in extra detail. Through collaborating with a charity and discussing the process and plan with them it clearly shows how I was able to do this task.

  1. How did you persevere in action?

At the beginning of the project I was uncertain about teaching football in extreme heat for 6 hours in one day, and a total of 24 hours of coaching in 2 weekends. This was one of the most challenging aspects of the service as keeping concentration during these long periods of time is very difficult. However I was able to persevere through this challenge and continue to coach throughout the day. Another challenge that I encountered was trying to control the kids. One of the ways that a took on this challenge and persevered is through making the practice more interesting and engaging for the kids. This made them want to stay concentrated and engaged in the activity.


  1. How did you work collaboratively with others?

The way that I worked collaboratively with others is through firstly, asking people to join me to help clean a river. Secondly, was through sitting down and devising goals, individual roles (guy who picks up garbage, documentor, guy who holds the garbage bag, etc.) and logistical plans. By getting multiple volunteers to help out with the event as well as devising goals and plans it shows how I can successfully work with others to come together to have a singular goal and vision (to restore the environment of the local river).

  1. How did you develop international-mindedness through global engagement, multilingualism and intercultural understanding?

During the service and action that I did in the Philippines, I also visited one of the local homes which my family were funding. When we went the home that we were funding, it opened my eyes to the reality of how these people live. They have an extremely small house with their family of 10 sleeping in it. On top of that they also house other animals including; dogs and chickens. This really opened my mind to how they lived their everyday life and inspired me to do this football training and provide food and money for them to live happily even for a little while.

  1. How did you consider the ethical implications of your actions?

One example of me considering the ethical implications of my actions is during the river cleanup. As we were sending a group of 10 people to the river in my local community we had to be aware of not harming or disturbing the environment any more than it already was. The way that I decided to go about doing that was by informing the group of 10 people not to cut any trees, mangroves and to be aware of the living organisms in the area.