TOK: Intro to Natural Science

Reflecting on our discussions in class, and with inspiration from the TED video, what
distinguishes Natural Science from other AOKs?
Identify any potential issues or questions that may arise when you consider your
definitions.

Many would first say that the Natural Sciences are more objective than other AOKs since “scientists” work to strive for a definitive answer/truth. Unlike other AOKs, the Natural Science has manipulated the opinions of this area of knowledge by suggesting that there is only one truth to the answer to any problem. And all efforts or investigations are to approve or disapprove a certain idea or answer that has been concluded. It is also one of the few AOKs where objectivity is a core value and many attempts are to make the experiment more “objective”. Even though the Natural Sciences strive to be objective to obtain the one and final truth, there is still a lot of subjectivity that lurks around the this area of knowledge. How society decides what is correct and what is wrong is subjective, how one concludes whether their experiment is objective is subjective. Now to think about whether the Natural Science and what we learn is the definitive truth, there is no one real answer to this problem

 

TOK: “Without the group to verify it, knowledge is not possible.”

“Without the group to verify it, knowledge is not possible.” Discuss

 

  • – What is the role of the ‘group’ in the production of knowledge in art?
  • The ‘group’ in the production of knowledge in art may refer to society or to the general audience who is viewing or anyone who is interpreting the message of the artwork. Since the knowledge refers to the interpretations of the group, this step generally causes most conflicts and discussions regarding the validity of art because the interpretation of art can vary between people and can also vary in depth.
  • – How does this link to personal and shared knowledge?
  • One who has experienced or has a personal connection with the art may have a different or deeper interpretation as compared to someone who has no idea where the artwork is from or the context of the artwork. Shared knowledge may be more general and the knowledge would not be as in-depth as someone who has personally experienced or relate with the artwork. This personal knowledge may only be known to certain few and can also be turned down or rejected by the ‘group’ as they would not have much knowledge to generate the ‘knowledge’ of a artwork.

– What kind of knowledge is there in the arts?

One of the biggest kinds of knowledge that differ arts from many of the others AoKs is perspective and emotions, as art allows the creator to employ personal connections or messages that may not be as factual or straightforward in Sciences. This kind of knowledge can be useful in History or Religion as we are able to connect and have a better understanding of the topic through the views of a subjective lense.

  • – Are all claims in art open to being shared and discussed?
  • I believe that all claims in art can always be shared and discussed but to the extent of where conflict erupts between ideas or interpretations may differ for different topics or different artworks. This may be the reason why people think art may not be shared or discuss is the fear of conflict or fear of pressure as the general society is usually persuading people to think in a uniform way. This also contradicts with the purpose of art which allow creative and unique interpretations and may often hinder the message or the knowledge that is developed from it.

 

TOK: What is Art?

Unlike The Arts, Science tells us something valuable about the world.
Outline a clear argument in support (claim, explain, evidence)
Outline a clear counter-argument ((claim, explain, evidence)

Support:
The arts is only able to produce conceptual knowledge about humanity, whereas Science actually provides us with useful information about the world we live in. In comparison to the factual aspect of scientific knowledge, what we can obtain from art is very limited and would not be of any significant value. The information we gain from science is invaluable, because without science human civilization would not have been able to advance very far from primitive cavebeings.  On another note, any knowledge gained from the arts is difficult to trust because what is being conveyed depends on the creator. Everything is subjective, so the information gained from art has the possibility of being inaccurate. It’s based on personal experience, affected by a myriad of factors, whereas science is subjective. Scientific knowledge is empirical and testable – having been explored and verified by scientists all over the world to become widely accepted. Thus, science is so much more valuable because we’re actually able to take that information and use it to further develop our understanding of the world, to advance technology. The things you can do with the conceptual knowledge gained from art is limited.

Counterclaim:

An example of Art being valuable is in AOKs of History, since digital technology or scientific innovation has mostly been developed in the past century. Many people in the past use art to convey messages, ideas, stories and also emotions which are valuable to historians as they will have a better understanding of the time period that the painting was created. For example, an artwork depicting a war where photography was not present may be valuable as it gives a perspective and also emotions allowing historians to be in the time period that the painting depicts. Even so, to the extent where it’s valuable can be different for different people as art is open to interpretation and many may have different views or theories even on the same painting. Art can also help express emotion, an example of this would be a book of facts that list how many have died in WW2 or from the Holocaust. To the readers, these are all just numbers with not much depth or meaning compared to paintings that may show scenes of people laying dead on the ground, there is a strong connection when viewing a painting compared to reading numbers and statistics from a book.

 

TOK: Faith and Intuition

Present a simple outline of the basic ‘problems’ of faith and intuition as WOKs

 

Weaknesses of Intuition Weaknesses of Faith
  • Based on what feels right rather than fact
    • Basic instincts such fearing the dark, though there may be no danger present
    • Impossible to prove it right or wrong before results come out
  • difference in faith between people can lead to debate
    • religions such as discrimination towards muslims
      • link them to terrorists and are being stereotyped
  • non-justifiable, since it is mainly a subconscious way of knowing something
    • one cannot prove or explain the reasons for what their intuition tells them.
  • hinder the acceptance of new ideas (religions)
    • continue discrimination to certain groups such as muslims to women and LGBT even though gender equality and women’s empowerment has changed over the years
  • lack of conclusive evidence makes it a very subjective WOK
    • faith is very individual and faith is very dependent on the person’s opinion
    • links back conflict between different religions as they both may think they are right

 

TOK: Language

“The vagueness and ambiguity of language always limits the production of knowledge”.

An example of language that is vague yet produces a different way of knowledge is music or art. Many have often said that music is a language that is expressed in another form, similar to paintings. it is in the eye of the beholder that everyone sees the same image but may have different interpretations and opinions on it. This vagueness and broadness in the interpretation of artwork is what makes it so different from many other language forms. Specifically in art, the production of knowledge is developed and built on the lack of restrictions, the ability to think through different lenses.

Unlike art, some languages such as in maths cannot be vague and ambiguous. Since math is precise, this leaves no room for error or for doubt as their language is very objective and factual with only one interpretation. Compared to art, the specificity of math is what allows the production of knowledge as everyone in the world can understand it.

TOK: Emotions

  • The sciences are all about using reason to understand the world, there is no place for emotion in science

In sciences, I think that in this area of knowledge, it is hard to brings emotions into the topic as it is very objective as we are not allowed to bring subjectivity as it would impact the reliability. Such as conducting experiments, if scientists start with a hypothesis that they believe is true, and conduct the experiment to increase the likelihood of reaching that conclusion. The findings are not accurate as there is data manipulation and the findings and research should be completely objective.

On the other hand, the definition of science varies as the field is quite broad. Science can refer to social sciences such as economics and geography, medical sciences and also natural sciences. For example, psychologists therapists must feel emotion in their jobs to help learn and understand others emotions. In which case is empathy as they must understand the patient’s situation to help them.

Another aspect where emotion is important is the passion. If scientists are not passionate or do not have the hunger for new knowledge, our knowledge of the world will not grow and will stay the same forever. Passion helps challenge existing theories and help push the boundaries of what we know and what we want to know.

In conclusion, emotions have their benefits to the different Sciences but I believe that generally science is more fact based and is best to stay as objective as possible as we do not want biased information.

TOK: Sense Perception

Even though there are problems with our perceptual systems, this doesn’t mean that knowledge gained from our senses is completely unreliable.

Sense perception can be faulty at times. As a human being, we all have our limitations and sometimes are unable to physically sense everything at the same time, making it hard to trust our senses. Even so, this does not mean that our sense perception is entirely unreliable. There are still ways for senses to be reliable.

An example of this is in the AOK is in the arts. Rather being unreliable, every person’s unique biological makeup affects their personal analysis of the artwork which distinguishes their opinions from everyone, this also helps identify and debate about what is ‘good’ artwork. Our idea to sense different emotions and moods in music and artworks is one that could not be done without our sense of perception. Artists constantly rely on their senses to guide themselves or uses their senses as inspiration for future works.

Following the theme of art, our biological makeup means that some people have a different sense of perception than others, this brings up the debate whether ones sense of perception is reliable or unreliable. One example of this was seen with the ‘dress’ which was introduced last year to the world, the dress split the world between two sides and lead to many new discoveries and passions.

 

TOK: Knowledge and Explaining

“If you cannot explain something, you do not know it.”

In what ways might it be reasonable to suggest that people who disagree can both be right?

There are many different ways that might be reasonable to suggest that people people who disagree can both be right. AOK such as math and science questions have more objective answers as these answers are proven for examples : 10+10 will always be 20 no matter what way you use to solve it. While AOK such as art or ethics are more open to interpretation and different people have different answers or opinions. I think that people who can explain and give a valid reason or argument can be counted as right with sufficient evidence and explanation.

CAS Reflection

  1. How did you become more aware of your own strengths and areas for growth?

  1. How did you undertake challenges that developed new skills?

As a tennis player myself, I often notice corruption even at a junior level. Throughout my career as a tennis player, I have witnessed a lot of inequality and corruption, while no one notices all these problems, they will soon be noticed if it continues as the number of cases related to match corruption is growing each year.

  1. How did you discuss, evaluate and plan student-initiated activities?

Social issues are part of our lives, even if we experience it locally or globally there will always be social issues around us. Tennis is something that is precious to me, something that I do daily, something that is part of my life. The topic that I chose was tennis corruption. As a tennis player myself, I often notice corruption even at a junior level. Throughout my career as a tennis player, I have witnessed a lot of inequality and corruption, while no one notices all these problems, they will soon be noticed if it continues as the number of cases related to match corruption is growing each year.

  1. How did you persevere in action?

Social issues are part of our lives, even if we experience it locally or globally there will always be social issues around us. Tennis is something that is precious to me, something that I do daily, something that is part of my life. The topic that I chose was tennis corruption. As a tennis player myself, I often notice corruption even at a junior level. Throughout my career as a tennis player, I have witnessed a lot of inequality and corruption, while no one notices all these problems, they will soon be noticed if it continues as the number of cases related to match corruption is growing each year.

  1. How did you work collaboratively with others?

Social issues are part of our lives, even if we experience it locally or globally there will always be social issues around us. Tennis is something that is precious to me, something that I do daily, something that is part of my life. The topic that I chose was tennis corruption. As a tennis player myself, I often notice corruption even at a junior level.

  1. How did you develop international-mindedness through global engagement, multilingualism and intercultural understanding?

Social issues are part of our lives, even if we experience it locally or globally there will always be social issues around us. Tennis is something that is precious to me, something that I do daily, something that is part of my life. The topic that I chose was tennis corruption. As a tennis player myself, I often notice corruption even at a junior level. Throughout my career as a tennis player, I have witnessed a lot of inequality and corruption, while no one notices all these problems, they will soon be noticed if it continues as the number of cases related to match corruption is growing each year.

  1. How did you consider the ethical implications of your actions?

    Social issues are part of our lives, even if we experience it locally or globally there will always be social issues around us. Tennis is something that is precious to me, something that I do daily, something that is part of my life.