In your own words, explain the difference between deductive and inductive logic.
Inductive logic is to make general rules or conclusions based on a limited number of observations, and it is typically the reasoning used in the AOK of Science. For example, the swans I have seen are white, so that means all swans are white. On the other hand, deductive logic is generating a conclusion based from a series of premises, can provide us with certainty, and it is typically the reasoning used in the AOK of Maths. For example, from a series of premises it can be said that all female are mortal, and Daphne is a female, therefore she is mortal.
What are the problems with each of these kinds of logic and what we can do to overcome some of these problems?
The problem with inductive logic is that it does not provide certainty, and it can be because of how limited your experience may be, as well as how we assume the world is a regular and predictable place, hence what happened today can happen tomorrow. Continuing from the example above, experiences can be limited as European swans are white but Australian swans are black, therefore showing that maybe all the swans I have seen are white, but that does not necessarily mean all swans are white.
The problem with deductive logic is that the premises usually come from inductive logic which provides uncertainty, and the certainty we get only cares about the structure of an argument, not if the conclusion is actually true. Continuing from the example above, all female are mortal, and if Johnny is a female, therefore she is mortal. However, Johnny is a male name, thus showing that the conclusion is not actually true, but because of the structure of the argument, this is what can be said.
Rabindranath Tagore said that ‘A mind all logic is like a knife all blade – it cuts the hand that uses it’ … what do you think he meant by this?
Through this quote, Tagore mentions that a knife being all blade would cut the hand that it uses it, meaning that the blade would injure whoever is using it. He uses this as an analogy for the mind, as he is trying to say that a mind that is only full of logic would just confuse the brain itself, and could possibly injure it. This could be because if a mind only thinks through logic, it can lead to fallacies that can cause overthinking and eventually the logic would affect ones reasoning, thus leading to them think and perceive the world in a way that would only confuse them.